Database Management Basics

Database management is the system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage and distribution to applications and users making changes as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being corrupted by unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that arrange data according to a particular arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, known as attributes, that contain information about the data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most widely used type of database in the present. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data, avoiding the need to change different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can accommodate multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level concerns costs, scalability and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of various external views based on different data models. It may include virtual table that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.

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